Research is a form of listening. By interpreting collected data organizations can then begin to plan out what needs to be done. Research is used to answer the questions needed to make change. Although it is vitally important research only takes up 3-5% of  budget.

Qualitative research is often used in public relations. It does not involve formulas or numbers. Qualitative research allows researchers to understand people’s attitudes and perceptions. Content analysis is used to measure the amount and content of media coverage. Interviews and focus groups are used to get people’s perspectives.

Quantitative research uses scientific methods and numbers. Using samples of the population allows researchers to predict a representation for the whole population. These samples need to be random and of a larger sample size. With random sampling there are less biases.